A manager has many roles. Henry Mintzberg, a Canadian academic in management sciences and author of numerous works on management born in 1939, divides these roles into three levels:
This paper describes the ten roles identified by Mintzberg on these three levels and gives an overview of current managerial trends.
H Mintzberg has broken down the work of a manager into 10 roles on these three levels.
1. At the information level
Having a liaison role allows the manager to have much more information than his team. Information seeking is one of the keys to being a manager. In the role of active observer, the manager constantly scans his or her surroundings for information.
Disseminator of information
Through his position, his network and his activity as an active observer, the manager has access to a great deal of information which he disseminates in return to his teams, his network or his relations, depending on the circumstances.
The manager also has a role as an "official" spokesperson in charge of communication, both externally as a spokesperson for his or her teams, and internally as a spokesperson for the hierarchy.
2. At the individual level
The manager is linked to the symbol embodied by the "leader". By virtue of his or her position, he or she represents his or her team or department to the outside world and the hierarchical power of his or her team.
The manager :
- develops a vision (where we are going, how we are going).
- sets the rules.
- motivates the team.
- develops the team's efficiency.
The manager is constantly looking for information that could be useful to him, so he spends a lot of time building a network around him. According to Mintzberg's study, managers spend much more time with their peers and others outside their organisation than with their own subordinates or hierarchy.
It is through his or her role as an entrepreneur that the manager will build the projects for the institution in which he or she works.
The manager allocates the various activities required of him/her and sets up the appropriate organisation:
- Define the skills required.
- Decide on the use of the resources assigned to him/her.
- Assign responsibilities.
Regulator / Disruption Manager
The role that can quickly become the most time-consuming is managing multiple disruptions.
- Unexpected events.
- People problems.
The manager spends much of his time negotiating. This is an integral part of their role because they are the only ones who have all the information about their organisation, especially about its resources.